Caroline Smith


  • Postdoctoral Research Fellow, The Pennsylvania State University (2010-2013)
  • Specialization: Thermal and microvascular physiology
  • Ph.D. Loughborough University, UK (2005-2009)
  • Specialization; Thermal Physiology
  • B.Sc. (Hons) Human Biology, Loughborough University, UK (2002-2005)

Current Teaching

  • ES 2050: Human Physiology
  • ES 4300: Environmental Physiology

Professional Affiliations

  • American Physiological Society
  • American Heart Association
  • American College of Sports Medicine

Laboratory Affiliation

  • Thermal and Microvascular Physiology Laboratory  (Director)

Research Interests

  • Dr. Smith is Director of the Thermal and Microvascular Physiology Laboratory which focuses on human thermoregulation and physiological responses to environmental stressors.  Current research includes utilizing novel approaches, including microdialysis and laser Doppler flowmetry, for assessing dermal carcinogen absorption and elucidating key factors modulating absorption during occupational exposure in firefighters. Understanding carcinogen exposure routes is of fundamental importance in various occupational settings to inform risk mitigation strategies and improve long term health outcomes. Additonal ongoing lines of investigation include examining in vivo signaling mechanisms underlying thermoregulatory and microvascular dysfunction in primary aging and cardiovascular disease groups.

Selected Research Publications 

For a complete list of publications:

  • Wait, S.O., Charkoudian, N., Skinner, J.W., Smith, C.J. (2023). Combining hypoxia with thermal stimuli in humans: physiological responses to complex environments. Am J Physiol. Reg Integr Comp Physiol. 324(6): R677-R690.
  • Margaret C. Morrissey, Douglas J. Casa, Gabrielle J. Brewer, William M. Adams, Yuri Hosokawa, Courteney L. Benjamin, Andrew J. Grundstein, David Hostler, Brendon P. McDermott, Meredith L. McQuerry, Rebecca L. Stearns, Erica M. Filep, David W. DeGroot, Juley Fulcher, Andreas D. Flouris, Brenda L. Jacklitsch, John F. Jardine, Rebecca M. Lopez, Ronda B. McCarthy, Yannis Pitisladis, Riana R. Pryor, Zachary J. Schlader, Caroline J. Smith, Denise L. Smith, June T. Spector, Jennifer K. Vanos, W. Jon Williams, Nicole T. Vargas, Susan W. Yeargin. (2021). Heat Safety in the Workplace: Modified Delphi Consensus to Establish Strategies and Resources to Protect U.S Workers. GeoHealth 1;5(8): e2021GH000443.
  • Sui, X., Terán, J. E., Feng, C., Wustrow, K., Smith, C.J. Vinueza, N. R. (2020). Quantification of anthracene after dermal absorption test via APCI-tandem mass spectrometry. Analytical Methods. doi.10.1039/D0AY00486C 
  • Collier SR, McCraw C, Campany M, Lubkeman A, StClair P, Ji H, Sandberg K, Morgan J., Smith C.J. (2020). Comparison of Withings Body Cardio to Gold Standard Measurements of Pulse-Wave Velocity and Body Composition. J Pers Med. 10(1): 17.
  • Smith, C.J. (2019). Pediatric Thermoregulation: Considerations in the Face of Global Climate Change. Nutrients, 26;11(9). doi: 10.3390/nu11092010.    
  • Smith, C.J. and Havenith, G. (2019). Upper body sweat mapping provides evidence of relative sweat redistribution towards the periphery following hot-dry heat acclimation.Temperature. 7;6(1):50-65. doi: 10.1080/23328940.2019.1570777.
  • Smith CJ, Craighead DH, Alexander LM. (2017). Effects of vehicle microdialysis solutions on cutaneous vascular responses to local heating. J Appl Physiol. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00498.2017. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Craighead, D.H., Smith, C.J., and Alexander, L.M. (2017). Blood pressure normalization via pharmacotherapy improves cutaneous microvascular function through NO-dependent and independent-medchanisms. Microcirculation. 2017 Oct; 24(7). doi: 10.1111/micc.12382.]
  •  Smith C.J. and Johnson, J. (2016). Responses to hyperthermia. Optimizing heat dissipation by convection and evaporation: Neural control of skin blood flow and sweating in humans. Auton Neurosci. 196: 25-36
  • Alley, J.R., Mazzochi, J.W., Smith, C.J.Morris, D.M., and S.R. Collier. (2015). Effects of exercise timing on sleep architecture and nocturnal blood pressure. J Strength Cond Res.29(5): 1378-1385
  • Smith, C.J., Alexander, L.M., and W.L. Kenney. (2013). Non-Uniform, Age-Related Decrements in Regional Sweating and Skin Blood Flow. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 305(8): R877-R88
  • Smith, C.J., Santhanam, L., and L.M. Alexander. (2013). Rho-Kinase activity and cutaneous vasoconstriction is upregulated in essential hypertensive humans. Microvasc Res.87: 58-64
  • Smith, C.J., Kenney, W.L., and L.M. Alexander. (2013). Regional relation between skin blood flow and sweating to passive heating and local administration of acetylcholine in young, healthy humans. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 304: R566-R573
  • Smith, C.J., Machado-Moreira, C.A., Plant, G., Hodder, S., Havenith, G. and N.A.S. Taylor. (2012). Design Data for Footwear - Sweating Distribution on the Human Foot. Int. J. Clothing Science and Technology. 25(1): 43-58
  • Smith, C.J. and G. Havenith. (2012). Body Mapping of Sweating Patterns in Athletes: A Sex Comparison. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 44(12): 2350-2361
  • Bruning, R.S., Santhanam, L., Stanhewicz, A.E., Smith, C. J., Berkowitz, D.E., Kenney W.L., and L.A. Holowatz. (2012). Endothelial nitric oxide synthase mediates cutaneous vasodilation during local heating and is attenuated in middle-aged human skin. J Appl Physiol. 112: 2019-2026
  • Stanhewicz, A.E., Bruning, R.S., Smith, C.J., Kenney, W.L., and L.A. Holowatz. (2012). Local tetrahydrobiopterin administration augments reflex cutaneous vasodilation through nitric oxide-dependent mechanisms in aged human skin. J Appl Physiol. 112: 791-797
  • Smith, C.J., Santhanam, L., Bruning, R.S., Stanhewicz, A.E., Berkowitz, D.E., and L.A. Holowatz. (2011). Upregulation of iNOS contributes to attenuated eNOS-dependent cutaneous vasodilation in essential hypertensive humans. Hypertension. 58: 935-942
  • Smith, C.J., and G. Havenith. (2011). Body mapping of sweating patterns in male athletes in mild exercise induced hyperthermia. Eur J Appl Physiol. 111(7): 1391-1404
  • Havenith, G., Fogarty, A., Bartlett, B., Smith, C.J., and V. Ventenat. (2008). Male and female upper body sweat distribution during running measured with technical absorbents. Eur J Appl Physiol. 104: 245-255
Title: Associate Professor, PhD, Thermal Physiology, Graduate Faculty

Email address: Email me

Phone: (828) 262-8450

Fax: (828) 262-3138

Office address
Leon Levine Hall 406